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Flame retardancy of nonwovens

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Flame retardancy of nonwovens

Author: Date :2020-06-04 Views: order
Nonwovens are innovative, high-tech, engineered fabrics made from fibres.  They are used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products either in combination with other materials or alone. Nonwovens are designed for  specific application, ranging from thin, light weight nonwovens to strong and durable nonwovens, be it consumer or industrial applications. The combination of their specific characteristics through the raw materials selection, the formation and bonding methods used or the applied finishing treatments, such as printing, embossing, laminating etc. allow to deliver high-performance products. 
Flame retardancy of nonwovens(图1)
Flame retardancy of nonwovens can be achieved in two ways: additive (mechanically blending the FR chemistry with the polymer prior to extrusion) and topical (coating the fiber or fabric with the FR chemistry). Additive types are useful with thermoplastics, while topical treatments can be used with thermoplastics, thermosets and natural fibers. 
Several approaches can be used to enhance the fire behavior of fiber based fabrics used either alone or in blends with other fibers: 
Coatings and/or finishing treatments may be applied to shield fabrics from heat sources and prevent volatilization of flammable materials. These may take the form of simple protective coatings or, more commonly, the treatment of fabrics with inorganic salts that melt and form a glassy coating when exposed to ignition sources.
Thermally unstable chemicals, usually inorganic carbonates or hydrates, are incorporated in the material, often as a back-coating so as to preserve the surface characteristics of the carpet or fabric. 
Materials that are capable of dissipating significant amounts of heat are layered with the fabric or otherwise incorporated in a composite structure. These may be as simple as metal foils or other heat conductors or as complicated as a variety of phase-change materials that absorb large quantities of heat as they decompose or volatilize. If sufficient heat is removed from the point of exposure, the conditions for ignition are not reached.
Char-promoting chemical treatments that may be fiber-reactive or un-reactive to yield launderable or non-durable flame retardancy, respectively.
Chemicals capable of releasing free radical trapping agents, frequently organ bromine or organ chlorine compounds, may be incorporated into the fabric.
In the particular case of synthetic fibers (approaches listed above are valid for both natural and synthetic fibers), the direct incorporation of additives (micro fillers and/or nanoparticles) or the chemical grafting/copolymerization of specific groups.

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