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An article about fabric color fastness testing: classification, standards and test methods

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An article about fabric color fastness testing: classification, standards and test methods

Author: Date :2022-09-26 Views: order

Color fastness is an important indicator to evaluate the quality of textiles, and is also a common test item in our daily textile testing work. Color fastness of good or bad, directly related to human health and safety, color fastness of substandard products, in the process of wearing, encounter rain, sweat, or even a certain degree of friction, the color on the fabric will fall off and fade, off the dye molecules and heavy metal ions, etc., are likely to be absorbed by the body through the skin, thus endangering the health of human skin; on the other hand, it will also make the other clothes on the body is stained with color On the other hand, it can also cause other clothes on the body to be stained, or stain other clothes when mixed with other laundry. This article will be from the definition of color fastness, classification, testing standards and testing methods and other aspects, the common several color fastness to do a brief introduction.

A. What is color fastness

By definition, color fastness (Color fastness), refers to the dyeing fabric in use or processing, by external factors (extrusion, friction, washing, rain, exposure, light, seawater impregnation, saliva impregnation, water stains, sweat stains, etc.) under the action of the degree of fading, is an important indicator to measure the performance of the fabric.

Second, color fastness classification, standards and test methods

1、Rubbing color fastness

1.1 Definition

Fastness to friction is the color of textiles, the ability to withstand friction, friction form can be divided into dry friction and wet friction. The two friction color fastness test method is roughly the same, the difference lies in the use of standard friction small white cloth is wetted with water.

An article about fabric color fastness testing: classification, standards and test methods(图1)

1.2 Test standards

GB/T 3920, ISO 105 X12, AATCC 8, AATCC 165, ISO 105 D02, ASTM F1319, JIS L0849, M&S C8, M&S C8A, NEXT TM6

1.3 Introduction to the test method

The specimens are placed on the rubbing fastness meter and rubbed with the standard rubbing cloth at a certain pressure for a certain number of times, and each group of specimens is required to do the dry rubbing color fastness and wet rubbing color fastness. The color stained on the standard friction white cloth with gray card rating, the resulting grade is the measured friction color fastness. Fastness to rubbing needs to do both dry and wet rubbing test, all the colors on the sample to rub to.

The following is the specific test method (mainly for the flat rubbing method, JIS Japanese standard curved rubbing method is not mentioned here).

Dry friction - a (50 × 50) mm friction cloth (standard white cotton), in the standard atmosphere (temperature 20 ℃ ± 2 ℃, humidity 65% ± 4%), adjust the wet (more than 4 hours) and then placed flat on the friction head, so that the direction of the friction cloth and the friction head of the allowed direction, the running speed of one per second reciprocal friction cycle, a total of 10 cycles of friction, the dynamic range of friction on the specimen is (104 ± 3) mm, the downward pressure applied to (9 ± 0.2) N. After completing the entire 10 cycles, remove the friction cloth, adjust the humidity (more than 4 hours), and remove any excess fibers on the friction cloth may affect the rating.

Wet rubbing - a piece of rubbing cloth after weighing, completely immersed in distilled water, remove, re-weigh the rubbing cloth to ensure that the water content of the rubbing cloth to 95%-100%, and then the operation method with dry rubbing.

2、Washing color fastness

2.1 Definition

Washing color fastness refers to the color of textiles, the ability to withstand washing. Washing color fastness is also divided into two kinds, respectively for washing color fastness and dry cleaning color fastness. The two test methods are basically the same, only the water washing and dry cleaning different.

2.2 Test standards

ISO 105, AATCC 3, AATCC 28, AATCC 61, AATCC 86, AATCC 132, GB/T 3921, BS 1006, JIS L0860

2.3 Introduction to the test method

The specimens are sewn together with the standard lining fabric, washed, cleaned and dried under suitable conditions of temperature, alkalinity, bleaching and friction so that the test results are obtained in a short period of time. The friction in between is accomplished by tumbling and impacting with small bath ratios and the appropriate number of stainless steel beads, which are rated with gray cards to yield test results. Different test methods have different temperature, alkalinity, bleaching and rubbing conditions and specimen size, the specific to be selected according to the test standards and customer requirements

3、Sunlight fastness

3.1 Definition

Sunlight fastness refers to the color of textiles, the ability to withstand sunlight, rain and other natural conditions of damage. The main test has two kinds of

(1) sun fastness test of dyestuff: sun fastness test of dyestuff under light and certain temperature and humidity conditions.

(2) Climate fastness test of dyestuff: to determine the climate fastness of dyestuff under the combined influence of light and a certain temperature and humidity and rain.

(3) Light and sweat fastness test of dyestuff: the specimens treated with sweat are exposed to sunlight in the apparatus, and then their light fastness and light and sweat fastness are evaluated, and their sensitivity to light is determined.

Generally through the xenon lamp to simulate daylight (different countries and regions standards vary, such as AATCC, ASTM, ISO, GB, etc. using xenon lamp, Australia British standards using mercury tungsten lamp, Japanese standards using carbon arc lamp), as well as the use of ultraviolet light aging, etc.; in the experimental equipment to control the specific temperature and humidity, in addition to the need to be able to simulate rain weather, equipped with a water spray system to simulate rainy days.

3.2 Testing standards

GB/T 8427, GB/T 8430, GB/T 14576, AATCC TM16, AATCC TM169, ISO 105 B02, ISO 105 B04, ISO 105 B06; AATCC TM186

3.3 Introduction to test methods

Textiles are usually exposed to light when in use, and light can destroy dyes and lead to the well-known "fading", making colored textiles discolored, generally lighter, darker, and some will also appear to change color light, so it is necessary to test the color fastness, sunlight color fastness test, is the specimen with different fastness levels of blue wool Standard cloth together with different fastness levels of blue wool standard cloth under the specified conditions (certain temperature, humidity, or rain, different standards require different), sun exposure, the sample and blue wool cloth for comparison, assess the light fastness, the higher the blue wool standard cloth grade the more light resistant.

4、Color fastness to perspiration / saliva

4.1 Definition

Color fastness to perspiration/saliva refers to the ability of textile colors to withstand perspiration/saliva; color fastness to saliva is mainly used to detect the effect of baby saliva on textile colors.

4.2 Test standards

ISO 105 E01, ISO 105 E02, ISO 105 E04, BS 1006, AATCC 15, AATCC 106, AATCC 107, DIN 54005, M&S C6, M&S C7, NEXT TM4, ISO 105 E01, ISO 105 E02, ISO 105 E04, GB/T 3992 GB/T 5713, GB/T 5714

4.3 Introduction to the test method

The specimen is sewn together with the standard lining fabric, put in the sweat stain solution for treatment, clamped on the sweat stain resistance color fastness meter, put in the oven at a constant temperature, then dried, and rated with the gray card to get the test results. Different test methods have different perspiration solution ratios, different sample sizes, different test temperatures and times.

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